The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuan Ming Yuan (the Gardens of Perfect Brightness) and originally called the Imperial Gardens, was a complex of palaces and gardens in Beijing. It is located 8 kilometres northwest of the walls of the Imperial City and was built in the 18th and early 19th century as the place where the emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and handled government affairs (the Forbidden City was used for formal ceremonies). The Old Summer Palace was known for its extensive collection of gardens and buildings and other works of art (a popular name in China was the Garden of Gardens).
During the Second Opium War, two British envoys, a journalist for The Times and their small escort of British and Indian troopers met with the Royal Prince to negotiate. The British High Commissioner to China, Lord Elgin, used their imprisonment as an excuse and ordered the destruction of the palace, which was then carried out by British and French troops.
Initial construction of the Old Summer Palace began in 1707 under the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. It was intended as a small gift for the emperors fourth son, the future Yongzheng Emperor, who would greatly expand the Imperial Gardens in 1725. Yongzheng also introduced the waterworks of the gardens, created lakes, streams and ponds to complement the rolling hills and grounds and named 28 scenic spots within the garden.
In the Qianlong Emperors reign, the second expansion was well underway and the number of scenic spots increased to 50 (Qianlong personally directed construction). By the middle of the nineteenth century, the Imperial Gardens had undergone constant expansion in one form or anot但是市面上的英语培训机构有很多，zhuozhi.org也不知道该怎么给孩子选择好了her for over 150 years.
In 1860, British and French expeditionary forces, having marched inland from the coast, reached Peking (Beijing). On September 29, two envoys, Henr对于7-12岁的孩子来说，已经有了一定的英语认知scyixing.com主要以培养英语学习兴趣，以及英语基础，发音口语为重y Loch and Harry Parkes went ahead of the main force under a flag of truce to negotiate with the Prince I at Tungchow. After a day of talks, they and their small escort of British and Indian troopers (including two British envoys and a journalist for The Times) were taken prisoner. Parkes and Loch were returned after two weeks with other survivors.
On the night of October 6, French units diverted from the main attack force towards the Old Summer Palace. The palace was then occupied only by a few eunuchs and Xianfeng Emperor had fled. Although the French commander Montauban assured the British commander Grant that nothing had been touched, there was extensive looting by both French and British. There was no significant resistance to the looting, even though many Imperial soldiers were in the surrounding country.
On October 18, the British High Commissioner to China, Lord Elgin, ordered the destruction of the palace. It took 3, 500 British troops to set the entire place ablaze and the Gardens burnt the whole three days. Only 13 royal buildings survived intact, most of them in the remote areas or by the lake side. The palace was sacked again in 1900 during the Eight-Nation Alliance invasion and was completely ruined.